Levels of Editing


I will check for errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and syntax. I will query or correct other errors or inconsistencies that may have escaped the copyeditor.


In addition to proofreading, I will check for or impose a consistent style or format, read for overall clarity and sense, query or correct apparent errors or inconsistencies, note permissions needed to publish copyrighted material, prepare a manuscript for the next stage of publication, and cross-check references, art, tables, figures, and other features for consistency with their mentions in the text. Copyediting can be light, medium, or heavy.

Substantive editing

I will identify and solve problems of overall clarity or accuracy, reorganize paragraphs, sections, or chapters to improve the order in which the text is presented, write or rewrite segments of text to improve readability and flow of information, revise any or all aspects of the text to improve its presentation, incorporate responses to queries and suggestions, and create a new draft of the document.


The cost of these services depends on many factors, including the level of editing required, the complexity or technical nature of the document, whether formatting is needed, how many rounds of editing are desired, and the turnaround time requested.

Rates for editors can vary wildly—between $30 and $100 per hour depending on the scope of work and the experience of the editor. Some documents can go as slowly as 125 to 250 words per hour; others may go as fast as 2,000 words per hour. If substantive or developmental editing is required or if formatting is requested, the rate can be higher.

To prepare a reasonable estimate, I would need to review the materials and assess the scope of the project. Fees can be negotiated per page (the industry standard is 250 words per page), per project, or per hour. If the size, scope, or nature of the project changes, a revised fee may be negotiated. 

Types of Materials


Reports, proposals, white papers, journal articles, fact sheets, presentations, position papers, policy and strategy papers, and annual reports.


Dissertations and theses, journal manuscripts, essays, book and article reviews, and research findings.

Nonprofit and corporate communications

Press releases, fact sheets, correspondence, newsletters, bulletins, brochures, articles, contracts, policies, manuals, and product information.

Web content

Websites, articles, blogs, and online training modules.


I am proficient in several editorial styles including Chicago, AP, APA, AMA, GPO, and many in-house style guides.